Full Record

David Ride : [field notebook] : Murchison-Gullewa Sept-Oct 1961 - Rottnest Oct 1961
Record no:
Call no:
Sept-Oct 1961
83, 2 p. ; 13 cm.
Account of an excursion by David Ride and party to area around between Murchison, Mullewa and Yalgoo in Western Australia, observations of geological forms and contacts with local residents. Also later short visit to Rottnest Island to observe quokkas.

Trip Gullewa-Murchison.
[Route to Gullewa from previous trips.]
Conversation with S. R. White before departure to get advice on Merkanooka Whites (he refers to them as "Wombat whites!)

John White's house.To get there turn west at Pintharuka south of tennis court, straight along road for 5-6 miles, plough disc: Beware of Children. John's place on right of road, Hamel living with Pa & Ma at Merkanooka.

Jim O'Brien knows of a man in Mullewa who found fossils in a well.
The stations out from Gullewa :  Mellenbye Stn. Broads, Barnong Stn. Mitchells, Burnerbinnah Stn. Craven ; Stan White says all helpful.

Single Cliff : about in the centre of the triangle Magnet, Paynes Find, Yalgoo ; wall of rock carvings etc.; Stan White describes them as peckings. From Yalgoo Lyall Palmer or son John at the hotel will direct to Burnabinnah on which Single Cliff stands, mention Stan White.

Conversation Bert Main suggests look at Green Creek series between Mingenew and Morawa, says that there are beaches obviously Post-Permian. Get there (data from 1st Gullewa trip 1957) from Morawa 14 m. before bridge s. of Mingenew bushfire sign on south of road, 200* east of sign, track in.

> 21 Sept. 1961.
Left Perth 6am, picked up Duncan Merrilees, Northam, Wongan Hills, lakes - salt on roadside, Buntine (met John Read friend of Duncan), Perenjori, collected ? condostraca and an  "anaspides" - very saline, almost saturated, shallow with a fine slender weed ; Morawa, Mellenbye turnoff, stockgate on road, saw red kangaroos, doe with joey at heel, Turi Ari Hill, Gullewa, stockgate, kangaroos colour of erubescens, dark ears abnormally coloured rufous?.  Mooloo Well, Ederga River set up camp in dusk. Numerous rabbits from warrens at bases of mulga trees, bright 3/4 moonlight, birds calling, ground covered with small compositae, a beautiful sight, plenty of water in river. Used new gun.

> 22nd Sept. Friday
Rabbits, corellas & flies, finished setting up camp. River bank bedded sediments, outcrops of greenstone, collected small geckoe, coxiella from small runnel approx. 8ft above present water level, Kodachrome photos of campsite, went to artefact site found by Duncan on the E. bank above a wide dyke of quartz which crosses the river. Collected artefacts for Ian Crawford to record the site. There are greenstone masses exposed on east bank, a dyke of quartz crosses the river with layers of pebbles including laterite and greenstone and a fine deposit of silt called loess, this contains coxiella and a large gastropod (Rhagada?). A few hundred yards above the camp loess covers the greenstone, no fossils found ; collected water beetles and insect larvae from river, saw 2 emus, went out with headtorch, shot rabbits.

> 23rd Sept. 1961.
Went north along road to ?Endergerlp to point opposite foothills of range about 3 m. N. of camp. Telephone line crosses river. Walked out all exposures between that point and the northernmost place reached yesterday. No fossils. Collected Atherines in Ederga R. for Gerlof, teal in river also black duck in flock of about 40.

Drove to Barnong Stn., Mitchells not at home, left note telling them where we were. Drove back to camp, saw a small rat-sized mammal - not identified in thick mulga between Yalgoo road and first well along fence line. Shot at a fox but missed, collected 2 rabbits, a female which we preserved the skull of W.R.79, she was in milk and fully grown, also shot a juv. black rabbit W.R.79 skin & skull. Rabbits plentiful along banks of river with warrens among the roots of mulga clumps. Plovers about calling and approaching camp in moonlight. Prepared bobtail and blue tongue skulls and girdles for skeletons for Duncan.

> 24th Sept. 1961.
Cleared up around camp, finished salting rabbit skulls, wrote labels. Duncan went down to river to fish purging, girdles of reptiles. Walked along river northward, collected Atherines for Gerlof.

Sequence of weathering of gemstone with laterization in a B horizon clearly shown south of the bar* on the east side of the river. Greenstone breaks up into blocks which decompose ; the cracks between the blocks being filled with perculating material ; laterite pebbles form in the blocks in the B horizon. Above this there's frequently a pebble bed which we interprete as being the result of the removal of fine material in a B horizon and the production of a "gibber" layer, subsequently this has been buried. On the west side of the river north of the bar is a demonstration of dune-bedding in the "loess" and some yards closer to the bar (i.e. south) the loess is seen to overlay a grit with coxiella and pebble beds below it, below this is greenstone but B horizon is on top of the grit. A bank below this is covered with artifacts - house stones and blocks which appear to be weathering out of the unconsolidated soil fine although some clearly post date it and lie above the present loess surface.

Hammer stone and artifacts collected from beach.

After lunch crossed river and worked north along E. bank, at first the weathered greenstone with a B horizon is visible and then the character of the country changes greatly opposite the hills. Place with no exposures, only unconsolidated soil visible and then, north of that a fine sequence of greenstone below, overlain by fine grit with coxiella overlain by a ..ontemized grit, overlain by a...essent bedded red umber then by a "white" umber like the lower travertined grit and then abscinfamably on top the loess which breaks up into climastistic blocks in weathering. Coxiella present throughout the grits and Rhagada was collected.

Drove back to Ederga springs, saw small Notomys or Antechinus, many rabbits. Set traps in evening between the two wells on the way from Yalgoo Morawa Rd. Saw small mammal ? bandicoot size.

> 25th Sept. 1961.
Visited traps set in mulga - no success. Went north to northern end of exposure on west bank and examined it southwards to where it petered out before telephone line. Moved north to where river divides into 2 branches at Ederga Springs. Road crosses both branches north of here. The river is broad here with exposed green grit in the bed, numerous coxiella found, appear to be more than one species. This is acting as a reservoir of water and it is feeding into the river from small quays in the girt. Above the green grit is the brown grit, the loess is missing. At the northern end of the main (last) branch: south of the road, there is a bar of greenstone across the river. Found small piece of longbone in a plaster of pebbles in the green grit in the centre of the E. branch. Found wood fragments v. delicate in the green grit. V. depressing exposure, not possible to see anything well, banks v. poor. Shot kangaroo Red male inspot, collected skull and some skeleton for Duncan W.R.80. The new rifle is too highpowered, shatters everything.

> 26 Sept. 1961.
Drove to Barnong Stn. Mrs Mitchell in with baby Robert, Husband and 2 other children gone to Morawa. V. nice person, an avid collector of rock specimens, spent some time talking to her, had tea and buns, phoned Bob Vincent - he is unable to join us at all this trip, phoned Margaret, she and children all well. Cost of calls 24/-. Mrs Mitchell spoke of a very interesting native area outside Yalgoo, encampment with mia mias still standing, kept secret by owners. Mrs M. spoke of an interesting place 5 m. south of Turi-Ari Hill with kaolin, ochre and ? burial mounds, speaks of excavating one day.

Drove S. of Turi-Ari Hill to place where creek crosses road (culvert). Banks which I had previously described as loess - not so. A (?) recent unconsolidated fluviatile deposit varying from a fine gritty soil on top to one layer of fairly coarse pebbles. Met Mitchell and 2 children on way there. Nice, a bit like John Calaby in appearance. Silent. They are getting rid of their goats by selling them at 20/- to Singapore, sold 1000 last year. Says that it is becoming more arid, gave 2 sets of ... 20 years each. Most recent rainfall 9 ins., previous set 11 ins.. Invited us over to have a bath !

Returned to Ederga Springs, searched bed of river, high in river i.e. near bar in E. branch and about same level in W. branch there is a vast amount of silicification both of the green grit and also tree roots etc. Chert v. common, a most unlikely place for fossil preservation. The presence of enormous quantities of chert upstream is a mystery, below Ederga Springs and at the spring itself occasional pieces were a source of comment, upstream the stuff is everywhere. Still no further base. Examined exposures N. of road crossing, I West, Duncan E. banks of main river (E branch : D branch is clearly a tributary) Nothing. Duncan did not reach the main creek entering the river some hundreds of yards from the road. I got opposite it, he seems to have good exposures in  its banks. The green grit was missing from the section at the Northern end of my search (below it). Collected 2 rabbits before more came up - caught 1 by hand in spotlight, shot other WR81 skull only with inguinal testes.

Made point of chert, will try skinning with it. Partly skinned kangaroo, did admirably- cuts as cleanly as a knife both for making initial incisions and for skinning.

> 27th Sept. 1961.
Skinned out kangaroo limbs & skull, also rabbit skull.

West South of camp for 1st time. River takes a bend with wide deposition of sandbanks heavily vegetated, seems to be very wide here. W. bank good exposures, about central has sequence from green grit on top of horizontal surface, some pebble beds in brown grit, undulating bedding in brown grit - B horizon above, origin appears to be brown grit, fairly considerable silicification but not too hard to scratch.\\ above the B. horizon is a clearly unaltered brown grid which must post date the B. horizon. It apears to be a loess and could be the result of a subsequent E/W/ tributary. Duncan found dried Tyto.

Crossed fence, crossed saltbush plain joined track and went up hill, down other side and faced east to river, v. poor exposures visible. Back to camp along track via Mooloo Well and gate in fence. Mitchells came out to camp and invited us up for the night.

Went across the river to w. side N. of Goanna Flat and selected a section, collected specimens, photographed it.

Sketch: diagram of observations of layers of bank.

There is some confusion about specimen B. It comes from what I believe to be the contact between the green and brown. However it is clear that the green oxides to brown (?) are both specimens A & B  coxielle.

Took numbers of photographs.

Drove to Barnong. The Mitchells are very interested. Mrs M. draws well and paints. Mentioned the "Kangaroo rats" and she had a sketch of a specimen which she had had, clearly Antechinus, pouch marked, she says common between here and Yalgoo. [3 children: Jane, Henry, Robert, parents Neil and Judy Mitchell]

> 28th Sept
Mrs Mitchell's notes on the Antechinus:" Coloured brown, black and white, jumps like a kangaroo. About 3 and a half inches nose to tailbutt, tail 4 and a half inches. Four distinct digits on each paw, with red clearly defined claws, white membranous flaps inside each ear. Pouched."

Perth addresses of Mitchells.
Went out to meteorite site posted by Mitchell on left hand side of road Barnong to Wurarga, 9 m. N. of Xrds on Yalgoo 4 mile.

2 major holes about 20+ apart and 3 minor filled in pits in the same line, partly filled in but clearly more than 8ft deep, suggest gramma holes, appears to be a grit horizon in walls - Duncan collected samples for nickel analysis.

Bob Campbell, manager Billabalong, owner Ted Officer, woolgrowing.

Picked up traps, packed up camp then went down to Main's section w. of Mooloo Well  and photographed.

Sect 2 (i.e. Duncan holding 2 fingers up) :
Sketch of layers of deposits above river bed. Duncan collected 3 :(1) top of sect grit (2) middle gravelly grit (3)white deposit of bone.Drove to Mellenbye, Leonard and Nan Broad.

> 29 Sept 61
Start Mellenbye, drove to Little Biddy breakaway, this is about 2 m. N. of Berbo Hill. A breakaway in the precambrian along the edge of the channel of the Ederga. Here the river meanders along lakes which it enters at Brady Hill.

Collected Varanus gouldii (small spec.) in burrow also Amphibolurus in burrow, also ants from exposed edge of lake. Collected artifacts, a beautiful microlith of quartz down in sand alongside W. bank of lake and other artifacts of quartz and greenstone from top of breakaway, all surface.
Beddie dingo: native names for two lizards :Varanus gouldi - Waddabi. Amphibolurus - Jubbi. A large Amphibolurus ? barbatus is called Wunnarda at Yellatery Stn. says local names are the same
   Kadgi Stn - Frank Broad
   Lochada - Robbins
   Warrada Stn - Harry Broad
   Burnabiamah Stn - David Craven

Had lunch at Mellenbye then left for Kadgi, Morawa Yalgoo Rd, cross Gortha Xrds, cross Pintharuke Xrds, turn left for Kadgi homestead, gate (cockies) in fence with track down to right, well with windmill, well (probably North Paradise), tracks leading NE and SW, took SW track hoping to get to Lochada Rd. Collected spider in Land Rover, brushed off scrub through open window, many hollow eucalypts, v. old track forking left, disused well with v. poor fence and cockies gate track to right along fence after well. Collected 3 spiders of some sort from web in fence at disused well. Wheel marks in scrub on left, slight dogleg in fence, meet fence at Rt, L5. Go through cockie's gate turn south, meet E/W rd at rt Ls, turn left should be Rt to Lochada. Lake on rt handside of road with small exposures of brown grit, probably Ninghabour Hill on Weelhamby lake. Appears to be good exposures beyond hill on SW side of lake on the Lochada-Kadgi where it crosses the lake, turn left to Lochada Homestead, south east to Rabbit Proof fence, through gate in fence & then south, gate across rabbit proof fence rd. at rd. to East should take us across to the N.S. Karara Rd, T junction Karara Rd, turn south to hit new Perenjori/ Warriedah Rd, so through gate immediately after turning, fourways meet at signpost to Karara, go through cattle gate south. Arrived at a homestead, Wannarra, very surprised, apparently crossed the lake twice without knowing it.

Take right fork, gate, gate and well, well, old homestead tracks L & R through gates, took left road, road still good, beautiful flora will photograph next morning. Camped for night facing east. Fox shot in spotlight WR82 male skeleton, owl killed on road by landrover 16 m. W of Warrara Homestead F. skinned for Gerlof, carcase preserved in formalin, lice collected.

> 30th Sept 1961
Heading for Wubin/Paynes Find road from Wannarra Stn, Great Northern Highway, Paynes Find, Gt. N. Hwy, turn off N. to Yalgoo signpost, stopped for lunch and to prepare specimens, creek flowing E/W load crosses quite exposed with lenses. Small artifacts scattered over surface of land above the banks. Collected. Predominantly an industry of small points ....ctical uniface of which excellent examples. Also in tributary W. of R flowing into the S. side of the creek there is a pebble bed exposed with what appears to be large cl...dy artifacts of quartz. It seems to me that although any one of these pebbles could be placed in a series of water rounded stones (non artifact) that these are far too many of one type here for this to be accidental. Series collected containing two "kodj-type blades".

Crossed lake, climbed range, many euros, crossed range and camped.

> 1st Oct.
Artifacts scattered about left, v. poor, did not collect. Emu dead on road, collected Tarsometatarsus and foot, sternum, sacrum and head. Thandelarra homestead, creek with well and windmill. Sections of grit with Rhagada and other small shells. Photographs (with Duncan +3 fingers), specimens collected from bottom ABCD. Artifacts numerous on NE bank above creek, the same attempts at ..face asymmetrical points. Small microliths based in these, cores of harefoot type, part of a lower grindstone and a pitted hammerstone. This industry should be compared with the upper ulstry collected on the 30/2/61 and the surface industry at Ederga R. Drove to Burnerbinnah, David Craven, wife, Miss ?, and 2 daughters and a 2 y.o. boy. David Craven a v. interested naturalist, tries to identify material, uses Glauert's snake book, wife collects odd things like spiders, shells etc.. He described a small red marsupial, about 3 times the size of a mouse, reddish brown, short, wide, head, big ears, bright eyes, fat tail - seems a description of the short-faced Antechinus ; saw no red patches behind ears. The animal was under a sheet of tin and escaped under the shed, has not been seen since. The children also shot a small mouselike animal a few days ago, no remains, colour of a mouse, thin tail, not a hopping mouse, big ears and a foxy face - obviously a form of Sminthopsis. The hands also got a hopping marsupial when splitting rotten fence post, it had a pouch - Antechinopsis ?. Will send specimens to the museum but he's worried about getting them there in reasonable condition, will leave formalin with him. Showed him how to collect and recognise artifacts. There are 2 major aboriginal pictographic sites on the property - one with bands in the rock (at Bulgomarra), another Single Cliff w. of fence n.of Copalgo Pool. There are also stone ang..ents.  He described 3 locations with exposures of grits:

(1)  Bulgomarra Creek - the gorge runs alongside the old road to Yalgoo. Above the gorge there are grits, the gorge is where the creek flows through breakaway country, Single Cliff is about 2 miles N. of Bulgomarrap.
(2)  Mandamanda creek. This is the creek which is shown on the maps as flowing north of the Northwest tip of Lake Monger, it has about 4 miles of exposures about 12 ft. high in places.
(3)  Curiyalgoo - photographs shown with car in picture: exposures of grits topped the car by a couple of feet, a pool in Bulgomamarra Creek below the gorge.

Craven tells of Tom Lockyer of Nalbara Stn and of a rock hole which he and Lockyer had cleared out when he was a hand there in 1937(9?), there were 9 feet of bones(?) there, also of a carved stone which Lockyer had which had been found by one of his hands. Drove over to Nalbarra Stn, saw T. C. Lockyer and Mrs. Lockyer - nice people, 4 boys, 1 in RAAF, 2 at school, 1 home on stn but away at Royal Show. Produced a muller (pitted) for Glauert, collected by Colin Lockyer and promised to Glauert by him at the George Hotel. Lockyer also gave us a beautiful stone churinga which had been found by one of his hands (George Bridges) on the surface. The place where it was found was the camping place of Jacky Warren, a full blood who died there. The camp was also used by a message carrier Chullaballoo. Jacky Warren carried round a lot of spears, woomeras, and objects Lockyer never saw. Corroborees were also held down at the camp, a special one was held in honour of Mrs. L. when they were first married. Reported a cave full of skulls, locality known to Baden Thiergill in Mt. Magnet (newsagent). He said that the rock hole with bones was blasted out by earlier surveyors for their camp and they had a trig. point on the granite. We went out to the granites and the rockhole Dept homestead 3094.5 NW diagonally across paddock though in length and face. Granite outcrops, well in top of western granite, drive right up on northern face 3102.8. Well apparently blasted in my opinion, steel spike lying around, broken slabs of rock not exfoliated, 1 scrap of noden bone, dead emus and sheep in hole, nothing worthwhile. Back to homestead and looked around garden of old homestead (destroyed in flood) where bones from the hole were said to have been used for garden purposes, nothing but modern bones found. Drove back along Thundelarra Rd and camped. Emus v. common in this area, large numbers roving about by day.

> 2nd Oct
Drove to Nalbarra to make phone call, could not get through, left telegram. Yoweragabbie Stn breakroy country where corroborees were held with creeks. Old full blood Nugget can inform, hands in rocks, information Bill Dempsey who used to be head stockman at Binnaburnah and would be there for 3-4 days & then on to the Murchison.

Nelson Pierce, Waratah Ave. used to be boss of Nalbarra. He recently took all diaries from 1911 on and account books, inform archives, also records of the gaol were lying about in the weather, some have been sent to archives but he refused do reading through the old ledgers the other day. Inform archives. Lockyer is manager for company headed by Colin Pearce. Drove back to camp, picked up Duncan & trailer, adjusted trailer brakes, suspect no linings. 16 m. from Nalbarra on rd to Binnaburnah collected abstracts and table of contents also in English, with nomenclature also in Latin.Varanus gouldii, labelled with metal top Nalbarra 2/10/61. Arrived back at Binnabinnah. David Craven gave locality of Cuttathas a rockhole about 2m. due east of Bulling R. H. Mrs Lockyer phoned to say she had got through to Margaret and all well at home. Talked to Craven who used to be a stockman on Nalbarra, he says that the rockhole in granite is at the posn marked Nakedar well but Nakedar well is actually a couple of miles further on, probably the unmarked windmill NW of the rockhole. Craven says that Leggadina lamps are present on the property, Mus musculus in house, identified v. damaged carcase They will try to catch one for us in the next few days. Amphybolurus, Mrs Mitchell says the local native name for this is booni (bunai).

Left trailer at homestead for Cuttathar rock hole said to be native camp and also possible deposits in soak. Cuttathar seems to be a perfect site for an archaeological excavation, there's a pool of perfectly fresh water (full of tadpoles of 2 sorts and small crustacea - both collected) which is  part shaded - probably as much as 1/2 shaded for a large part of the year, not quite permanent. Surrounded on 2 1/2 sides by low cliffs of decomposed granite 10-12 ft in height and a sloping massof sand on the other sides. Good quartz in the vicinity for artifacts, and artifacts scattered around on the surface of the open sand (a sample collected). There are low caves, the largest about 15 ft x 15ft and averaging about 4ft to the roof, roof fire-blackened. The floor of the cave is well above the surrounding depression and one has the impression of a deposit within the cave. There are 2 main shelters, the second much smaller and small niches in the rock wall which also appear to have been used. There are bones sticking up out of the cave floor [sketch of cave], photographed both in colour + b&w, zebra finches drinking, Photographs(colour) start with photos of this.

[List of B&w photos taken].

Drove back to Burnabinnah Homestead, Mrs Craven gave us tea and a stew of meat and bread. She had also collected a striped Ergermia in the house where they are very common.

Drove out to Manda Manda creek and camped on good exposures of grits. Road good all the way except for last bit where it comes low along flats and tends to become lost.

> 3 Oct Tuesday 1961
Walked out exposures downstream from camp, many lenses of gravel in the grits, grits varying from fine with root holes to coarse. Chertified tree root holes and bands of hard whitish silicon material, grits when broken often show concentration of blackish iron staining. No fossils found. Few waste flakes on surface.

Drove north along track to creek crossing, exposures poor, chert on surface. Surface is a fine brown grit with some pebble bands, hard chert layer 1/4 to 1/2 in. in thickness, sandy brown grit, fine hai... with root tubes (chertified) and small holes (reminiscent of loess) ..oden soil.

Munda Munda well - windmill. Drove around over the flood plain above the well, here grits are exposed over a wide area and low banks exposed over a wide area, there is also much loose sand. Returned to Munda Munda well, back to creek crossing, collected samples of chert. Duncan found 5 discrete images how the river has low exposures and wide vegetated sand banks in the middle. Walked out beds. Kodachrome of pondiar discontinuity E. bank of R. Continued downstream, good exposures of grits greatly undercut, unfortunately no fossils, continued to walk out exposures until camp reached. Packed up camp and returned to homestead. Saw Euro on returning to main road. The sequence here with many chert horizons and lenses, coupled with the .... picture of a shifting bed filled with small pools, sand bars, gravel lenses etc gives rise to a general interpretation of local channels reworking deposits and leaving an extremely complex stratigraphy.

Discussion about mallee fowl after tea. Get hold of Frith's Australian .... magazine article for them.
Fox first appeared in this country in 1929, first four taken on Muralgarra and not known what they were (Bob King).

Local names for Echidna: Kundawar and Ningar.

Biggadas[Wallaroo] not common near homestead but some around a mile or  two away.
Susanne 7, Janet 10, Robert 2 1/2, David 13.

> 4th Oct (Wed) 1961
Cleaned up, did washing and then drove to Single Cliff, Thundelarra Rd. through gate and across clay flat (Bilgonara Creek outwash), turn right into Station rd, cross creek at Coryalgo well, drove along fence running W of N., get through fence, Single Cliff visible. Single Cliff is a prominent isolated breakaway on high ground, good vantage point. The drawings are confined to a very small area about 20 ft. x 5ft. at ground level on the eastern side. Peckings consist of emu tracks, stick men, concentric lines, winding line, emu track in circle, also small ochred hands : [sketch]. There are numbers of holes in the br... which are well filled with enberat(?) well plugged with sticks and stones, found an artifact embedded in the enberat in one of these to the N of the carvings & about 8 feet up (collected artifact). Isolated hands in excellent condition under arch to N end of breakaway: 1 small with fingers closed, 2 full sized big hands.

Returned to homestead, pack & grease vehicle etc. Back to Bulgonarra Creek, turned off at Thundelara rd at Jarramunda well on to Coryalgo well and examined exposures below the well. These exposures are very interesting and reveal features not seen before: the SE bank is composed of red grit with pebble lenses and silicified tree root holes. Exposures loo -  up to 6ft below this grit is an extensive lateritized pisolithic layer and below this a beautiful silicified grit. The lateritic layer is eroded off at a point about 150* below the crossing and the riverbed is a white mass of hard rock [sketch], samples collected. Crossed creek, followed the fenceline and through gate. Drove up creek to gorge, v, rocky terrain, difficult to get trailer through so stopped vehicle & walked. High cliffs of granite (decomposed)with a distinct terrace above the present creek line. Some small remnants of grit. Camped for night and prepared the lizards(?) collected at Burnabinnah.

> 5th Oct 1961 (Thursday)
Drove back from edge of gorge to follow main track northwards. Climbed hill and at top apparently well above the level of the top of the gorge, crossed small creek and run alongside. Exposures of red grits and even a green grit, possibly the creek before it enters the gorge. Caught small amphibolurus. Drove North to well probably Gullamilyaroo pool. Exposures of grit in w. bank, red sequences & good exposures of green grit, below the well I estimate the green grit with chert to be about 6ft thick with about 3ft of red grit above, there is clear indication that there is discontinuity between the green grit and the red. The modern creek in both places seems to be flowing along the banding where the red grit comes to an end [sketch].

Crossed into Muralgarra Stn, entered savannah plain with creek flowing between 2 outcrops of granite, grits exposed at base. Collected Myrmicine ants for Athol [Douglas], hot work digging, stopped to have lunch at a most beautiful flowering tree about 9 ft tall, blossoms rather like foxgloves sprouting out of the calyx of fuchsia, photographed it for Royce and collected some blossoms, unfortunately no fruit. Fence with mill & gate probably ..... ... between Thorocogycogy and Booyoo sp.

Tracks very poor on this station, they lead from one point to another but not in the direction marked in the 10 mile maps and not to the places one wants to go. Arrived at well with good mill in creek with extensive yards, an old wagon. What appears to be a large holding paddock and the remains of an earlier windmill ... by cyclone. This is probably the well without a name on Muralgarra Stn SW of Booyoo Sp. near the southern boundary with Thundalara Stn. Shot young M. rufus F. WR83, kept only skull and pelvis, nulliparous with large buck who was warning her and hung around when she was shot.

Walked out extensive beds, on S. side of creek green grit exposed with a clearly laterized zone.he beds are 8 - 10 ft thick, red grit missing. On N side of creek the red grit is well exposed, an unmistakable artifact found in the pebble bed just above the contact between red and green grits. Walked upstream, r. beds continue for approx. 1 mile in the western tributary with a small cup in the junction between the E & W tributaries[sketch]. The red grit then gives up. No sign of fossils in the green grit. Drove west downstream, collected fragments of a tortoise probably C. stendachineri.

> 6th Oct 1961 (Friday)
Prepared kangaroo skull. Exanined section where artifact was found and photographed it.

Sketch of stratigraphy and description of site. Stratigraphy of rain creek as above well but less green grit and red grit now on both banks. Collected 2 parts of artifacts part embedded in the deritus of the erosion platform above the N. bank within 100* W of the boundary between green & red. Track joins round top of tributary, cross flat tributary, low exposures all the way. red grit seems to be better on south bank, tributary from NE. EW track turns west. River at this place is a wide sand river about 50* wide with low banks with good exposures (stepped) of red grit on both banks. On S side of the fence the banks tend to be covered with sand and exposures are poor. No fossils.

Good exposures of red grits on green for about 1/2 of a mile from fence northwards. Photographed dark red bottlebrush same as that seeds collected from 5/10/61.

Back at fence, track v. poor, through fence(strainer) and trends southwards here, turned W along fence, found addled emu egg, tried to blow it for Duncan's children but it broke.

Continued south met EW fence at T with gate , turned west. Met fence turning south at R+, fence due west, rt L fence turns South, main road cattle inthough.

Yalgoo, stopped at the pub, phoned Margaret. Drove on the Geraldton road to Mullewa. Continued west along Geraldton Rd across rlwy line and then down rd to Mingenew for 7.4 m to Kockatea Gully, camped there for the night. On way into Yalgoo tried to trace squeaks in trailer - offside brake drum, oilbearings appear to be well packed but drum squealing badly, did not withdraw bearings, flushed out drum with petrol and slacked off the adjusting bolt until squeal disappeared. No brakes in rt wheel.

> 7th Oct (Saturday) 1961
Kockatea gully. Duncan both brown and green grits present, collected specimens. Drove to Mullewa (garage), posted film and wrote to Margaret and Gerlof. creek trib. of Wenmilla Creek on rt of road just north of Mullewa, series same as Ederga - green & red, horizon of coarse pebble conglomerate between and layers of pebbles at various levels in the red. Wenmilla Creek crosses rd. here there is a complicated sequence in E of rd. Good contrast between a very white conglomerate(&seen) and a basement rock which appears to be largely granitic, no definite red except for a rubbishy upper soil horizon, further down there is a complicated sequence of weathering of basement which can be followed to nearly in weathered Granite through to a "false shaly grit"covered with brown grit. The shaly grit has been penetrated by root tubes which are silicified. Tutawa Gully, v. extensive deposits of red and green grits, channels cut & recut, excellent exposures, numerous lenses of pebbles in one place near road green grit on lateritized bedrock, in other places the green grit is lateritized. Laterite pebbles in some green grit and chertified layers are present, red grit has pebbles inc. laterite. Deep pools in bedrock with C.[Chelodina] Steindachneri, caught a few for Duncan.

Greenough River crossing. Granite close to surface in bed of river granite sheets with quartz veins, small patches of what could be green grits - colour very green but v. soft may be re...ted. Immediately above the bed (hidden in sand) in the banks is a greenish deposit but this is red when broken, some small amount of chert in it. Above this a red grit and mud reddish ? loess. Have walked this out previously as far as the bar downstream, did not appear fri...form .. ... occasion .. impressing the ..now.

Boolardoo Stn met Jensen, not much help, Murchison R., had meal in darkness, Billabalong Stn. met Bob Campbell, will pick him up next morning. Camped outside home paddock, change to front tank, turn off along fence to west after passing through gate (1st gate not a change gate). Turn through fence before well, join fence at continue south, creek on right, stopped. Duncan prospected northwards and I workedd south, good specimens of green and brown grits, wide channel with many beds, bars etc. 400* south of car halt found artifact in situ above bed, approx 2ft above green grit with silicified layers, found further artifact below it in a gravel patch loose in bed. Collected some artifacts from surface above banks for comparison.  Blazed tree (white gum) 7ft above ground, v. wide butt on tree, Blaze R on N side of tree. Returned to camp and bed.

> 9th Oct onday 1961
Soaked grease nipple in petrol to try to clean it.
Set off for Yallalong via New Forest homestead, saw creek we prospected yesterday extensive exposures of grits, several chanels end at the road the grits end some 200-400* W of the parent edge of the creek. Passed several other creeks on the road between granitic and quartz massifs all contained some grits. Clearly at some time this country was a land of great streams flowing between islands and peninsulars of hard rock - an enormous contrast with today's picture of arid acacia scrub and dry wadis.Collected a tula adze-flake and a tula slug on the surface at edge of creek 2 m. W of New Forest homestead. Collected artifacts at various sites in order to show range of materials used at various localities on the road.

Arrived Yallalong homestead, owner Eric Fitzgerald & wife & 2 children (7 & 10) away. Hand Glen Bailey gave us lunch. After lunch drove down to river, collected water-dragon on horizontal eroded cliff edge of green grit. Caught 2 species of fish, 1 appears to be spangled perch, both caught with hook & line using Atheines as bait, did not preserve atheines some caught on last trip to Murchison. Duncan found an Australite in situ in a dense conglomerate well down in the section, the conglomerate was eroded horizontally but no doubt that the australite was cementd into it. Photographed the site in colour & b&w, also photographed in colour one of the two species of fish to get a record of very definite yellow markings. Climbed a tree to try and get a bearing from australite promontory to homestead but could not find it, took bearing of distinct breakaway. Left homestead for Billabalong.

> 10th Oct. (Tuesday) 1961
Packed up and left Billabalong. Drove to Woolgorong, boss Gary Ted Officer & manager Wickman out mosting, Mrs Wickman at home, told us about meteorite and letter from govt. geologist saying it was not a meteorite. Bill Hamlet, native of about 60 raised on Boolardy (Bullardoo?) arrived at station with Dutchman Alfred Both of Mosman Park. Hamlet (m/w) had found the meteorite with another native shortly after the fall was heard by Mr & Mrs Wickman and other people working on the station. Hamlet took us out to the place. Directions. Through gate outside homestead along road to Mullewa, turn right just before first fence and site a hundred yards or so in along the fence line. Depression had been dug out by Hamlet and others but many fragments of meteorite lying around most on one side of crater but a few scraps on opposite side. Found scraps (majority with c... intact) in the wall of the crater - all but one on the side with the majority of fragments i e Western 1 fragment on opposite side. I am perfectly satisfied that these fragments are all in situ. Duncan took very full notes, collected all fragments we could find (? helped by Bernie, Hamlet's grandson). I am struck by the resemblance of the thing to my memory of Bencubbin. Returned large lump of meteorite which the station had kept to Mrs. W. who states that a field party from Geol. Survey had taken all the remainder (a kerosene tin full) to Perth Photographed the station's lump trying to get the crater "flow lines to show up" both colour and b&w. Joe Lord had reported on the material to the Wickmans as being partly  kaolinized gabbroidal doleritic (Letter Geol. Survey 12.9.61). Will see him about this as soon as get back to Perth.

Duncan also had a further fall described to him by Hamlet. Stuck by resemblance with his description of noise and heat given by Mrs W. The other meteorite was on Mungo Stn 1 1/2 m. from Deep Well c. 4 1/2 m. from the woolshed. Jimmy Tyson, John Mungo, working on Mungo both know the position  (mud map in Duncan's notes). Hamlet also described "bones sticking out of rock on Boolardy (Bullardoo?) Stn, towards Mileura? boundary. Fred Simpson and Danny Simpson, Mungo Fred, Frank Tiger, Mick Gilbert, Wlat Nugee all know(mention Hamlet told us). Talked to Hamlet and mentioned kinchi, showed him Churinga from Nalbara, made sure Bernie ...Hamlet said that such things were used at Wilgie Mia area. Suggested that caves beyond Wilgie Mia contained such things. Go from  Glen Stn through the gap, Wilgie Mia on right, come to old gold mine, then to flat plain with native ..ed graves, go further to another flat plain, breakaways with caves, says churingas in them. Hamlet then produced his kinchis and said that one was used in his circumcision and that they were used for scarification, showed scars on forearm. I showed Hamlet blade I made in Barnong, he then sliced his forearm with it and drew blood. His kinchis were circular and his own c. knife was wrapped in a small parcel of ... feathers in a small briefcase [sketch]. Says that the stone for the kinchis is found around Wilgie Mia, appears to be a very dark chert, very even.

Drove to Merkanooka and brown grit between Corra and Tendin creek crossing near gravel pit on south side of it (pit on hill). Rescued from wheat paddocks by Jack Bradley who guided us. Whites report hearing of fossils from Dooranel River. Also fossils reputed to John White on Byro Stn by ex hanger. John Baker now Rules Store Morawa (said to be wombat small kind) in caves.

> 11th Oct. 1961, Wed.
Saw Baker in Morawa. He said that John White had wrong end of stick. Says that recent mammals which were referred to as "wombats" on Byro had made holes in Byro. Suggested that we contact present ranger. Knows of no fossils.
Returned to Perth.
13-14 Oct. 1961 - Rottnest Island.
Collecting and filming quokkas for quokka birth film with Hugh Biscoe and Chester (Animal House Zool. Dept.). Population large and v. satisfactory numbers caught at rubbish tip. Filmed and released.
3 joeys kept: WR84 Male juv. carried in pouch, fell out when mother captured 13.10.61. Torch and net.
WR85 Female juv. at heel 13.10.61. Torch and net.
WR86 male juv. at heel 13.10.61. Torch and net.
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